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|Collection Reference Number
|From Archive Folder
|Documents Relating to 1754-1764
|Richard Peters to William Johnson regarding northern Indian affairs in upper New York
|12 February 1761
|Peters, Richard (1704-1776)
|Writes to the British commissioner about Northern Indian Affairs in upper New York. Discusses Indian tribes and Connecticut's attempt to get a new grant from the King. He concludes: "I most heartily congratulate You in the Surrender of Canada and on the most favourable Solution of all our Affairs." Richard Peters, Provincial Secretary, superintended Indian affairs and attended the Albany Congress, 1754.
|American Indian History Military History Global History and Civics Canada French and Indian War
|Peters, Richard (1704-1776)
|Native Americans; Foreign Affairs; French & Indian Wars
|The Gilder Lehrman Collection, 1493-1859
|No longer able to play the French off against the British, Native Americans found it increasingly difficult to slow the advance of white settlers into the western parts of New York, Pennsylvania, North and South Carolina, and Virginia. To stop encroachments on their lands in the Southeast, the Cherokees attacked frontier settlements in the Carolinas and Virginia in 1760. Defeated the next year by British regulars and colonial militia, the Cherokees had to allow the English to build forts on their territory. Indians in western New York and Ohio also faced encroachment onto their lands. With the French threat removed, the British reduced the price paid for furs, allowed settlers to take Indian land without payments, and built forts in violation of treaties with local tribes. In the Spring of 1763, an Ottawa chief named Pontiac led an alliance of Delaware, Seneca, Shawnee, and other western Indians in rebellion. Pontiac's alliance attacked forts in Indiana, Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin that Britain had taken over from the French, destroying all but three. Pontiac's forces then moved eastward, attacking settlements in western Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia, killing more than 2000 colonists. Without assistance from the French, however, Pontiac's rebellion petered out by the year's end. The following letter provides context for Pontiac's uprising. Teedyuscung, a leader of the Delawares who is mentioned in the letter, originally sided with the French during the French and Indian War. Once the British agreed to honor Teedyuscung's land claims, however, he threw his support to England. The British also wanted to gain the support of the Iroquois, the most powerful people in western New York. At the Albany Congress in 1754, British commissioners including Richard Peters, the author of this letter, met with the leaders of the Iroquois League under the pretense of addressing Iroquois grievances. But instead they arranged agreements beneficial to themselves, outraging the Iroquois as well as many colonists who wanted the lands for themselves. Sir William Johnson (1715-1774) was the British commissioner of Northern Indian Affairs in upper New York. Richard Peters, Provincial Secretary, superintended Indian affairs and attended the Albany Congress, 1754. Teedyuscung, a leader of the Delaware tribe, originally sided with the French during the French and Indian War. Once the British honored Teedyuscung's land claims, however, he threw his support to England. Land claims created problems for the British with the Iroquois as well. In 1754, British commissioners met with leaders of the Six Nations (better known as the Iroquois League) in Albany under the pretense of solving the Iroquois's grievances, but arranged agreements beneficial to themselves. The reference to "Chinguss" is to Shingas, who was a leader of the Delaware people in the Ohio Country and a noted American Indian warrior on the western frontier during the French and Indian War. Johann Conrad Weiser (1696-1760) was a German Pennsylvanian pioneer, farmer, monk, tanner, judge, and soldier. His most significant contributions, however, were as an interpreter and emissary in councils between Native Americans and the colonies, especially Pennsylvania. Daniel Clause was a respected professional translator. John Henry Lydius was a counselor to Johnson. England gained control of Canada after the fall of Montreal in September 1760.
|The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History
|Settlement, Commerce, Revolution and Reform: 1493-1859