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Collection Reference Number GLC03626
From Archive Folder Documents Relating to 1815 
Title John Quincy Adams to William Eustis regarding the treaty of Ghent, Napoleonic wars, and threat of Barbery
Date 31 August 1815
Author Adams, John Quincy (1767-1848)  
Document Type Correspondence
Content Description Discusses the Treaty of Ghent, Napoleonic Wars, threat of Barbary pirates, and the new Netherlands constitution. Re: the Napoleonic Wars, Adams writes: "France is a conquest, and as a conquest will be treated."
Subjects Pirates  Netherlands Constitution  President  War of 1812  Military History  France  Global History and Civics  Napoleonic Wars  Treaty  Diplomacy  Barbary Wars  Barbary Coast  Barbary Pirates  Africa  Government and Civics  
People Adams, John Quincy (1767-1848)  Eustis, William (1753-1825)  
Place written Ealing, England
Theme Government & Politics; War of 1812
Sub-collection The Gilder Lehrman Collection, 1493-1859
Additional Information Although often treated as a minor footnote to the Napoleonic Wars, the War of 1812 was crucial for the United States. It effectively destroyed the eastern Indians' ability to resist American expansion. A coalition of Native Americans was defeated at the Battle of Tippecanoe in Indiana in 1811 and the Creek Indians were defeated in the South by General Andrew Jackson. Abandoned by their British allies, Native Americans reluctantly ceded most lands north of the Ohio River and in southern and western Alabama to the U.S. government. The war greatly strengthened America's position relative to Spain in the South and Southwest. It allowed the United States to solidify control over the lower Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico. Although the United States did not succeed in conquering Canada or defeating the British empire, it had fought the world's strongest power to a stalemate. Spain recognized the significance of this fact and in 1819 abandoned Florida and agreed to an American boundary running to the Pacific Ocean. The Federalist party never recovered from its opposition to the war. The proposals of the Hartford Convention became public knowledge at the same time as the Treaty of Ghent and the American victory at New Orleans. Euphoria over the war's end led many people to brand the Federalists as traitors. The party never recovered from this stigma. Finally, the war produced profound changes in New England. As a result of the war, New England importing and exporting was in ruins, and wealthy New Englanders reinvested their resources in manufacturing. Further, with its dominant political party discredited, New Englanders found new ways to influence national policy. In the future, New England would engage in far-reaching campaigns of moral reform intended to make its values the nation's values. In this letter, John Quincy Adams (1767-1848), the son of the former president and America's Minister to Britain, discusses the defiance of the terms of the treaty of Ghent by British officers.
Copyright The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History
Module Settlement, Commerce, Revolution and Reform: 1493-1859
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